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Cindustria

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Cancer grade and stage grading; classifies cellular aspects of a cancer. Staging; classifies clinical aspects of the cancer. 12. Histologic class i - well differentiated ii - moderate differentiation iii - poor differentiation iv - immature & undifferentiated 13. Clinical staging o - ca in situ i (a) - localized growth ii (b) - limited local growth iii (c) - extensive local and regional growth iv (d) - metastasis 14. Tnm classification t - primary tumor n - regional lymph nodes m - distant metastasis tis no mo t4 n3 m1 15. Goal education and early detection c a u t i o n 16. Surgical interventions biopsy cure control - debulking palliative staging reconstructive prophylaxis 17. Radiation destroys cells, causes inflammatory response side effects goals: cure control palliative radiation recall external implants isotopes 18. Chemotherapy cell cycle non-specific alkylating –cytoxan, leukeran, n. Mustard antitumor antibiotics - adriamycin nitrosoureas –carmustine, hydrourea corticosteroids –prednisone, decadron hormones –estrogen, provera, androgen cell cycle specific antimetabolities –methotrexate, 5-fu plant alkaloids (miotic inhibitors) –vinblastine, vincristine cisplatin tamoxifen 19. Synergistic effect the total is greater than the individual parts each agent has: action against cancer different site of action different organ toxicity or time of toxicity 20. Mopp protocol 21. Side effects cluster the common ones: bone marrow suppression alopecia nausea and vomiting adriamycin - cardiac cisplatin – renal 22. Complications pain control bone marrow suppression infection - neutropenia hemorrhage anemia infarction superior vena cava syndrome spinal cord compression tumor lysis syndrome 23. Common problems/complications associated with cancer tumor lysis syndrome (tls); destruction of cells (lysis) release of purine and potassium (k+) into bloodstream purines converted to uric acid (in liver) k+ into bloodstream hyperuricemia hyperkalemia obstruction of kidney tubules arf 24. Paraneoplastic syndromes secretion of insulin secretion of acth hypercalcemia siadh 25. viagra online cheap generic viagra buy generic viagra http://classicmotocrossimages.com/mbs-uk-viagra-sales-yg/ cheap generic viagra viagra online cheap viagra cheap viagra online buy cheap viagra buy viagra online Siadh - syndrome of inappropriate adh adh release water reabsorption into circulation -renal tubules extravascular fluid plasma osmolality glomerular filtration rate serum sodium levels cerebral edema 26. Leukemia aml - acute myelogenous age of onset (15-39 yrs), usually affects adults prognosis is generally poor, best with bone marrow transplant most common type of leukemia equal incidence in males and females all - acute lymphocytic age of onset (<15 yrs), usually affects children, accounts for approx 10% of adult leukemia's prognosis is poorer for adults than for children fever & bleeding increased incidence in males 27. Leukemia cml - chronic myelogenous age of onset (>50 yrs) involves liver & spleen blastic crisis cll - chronic lymphocytic older patients – over 50 lymph node involvement 28. Lymphoma lymph system ly.

 
 
 
 


 

 
 
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